What are the different types of antibiotics and what they each treat?

Tatum Hardy

New member
Antibiotics is a term usually meaning antibacterial chemotherapeutics which are things like beta lactams(penicillin's, cephalosporines, carbapenem) and vancomycin that attack the bacterial outer wall (saccules).

Human cells don't have a wall, for our cells just have a membrane then there are antibiotics that inhibit the protein biosynthesis like tetracyclines and macrolides. They work against staphylo, strepto and pneumococcus (grampositiv). Some of them are also effective against gramnegativ bacteria and intracellular ones.

Do you have some specific antibiotics that you wish to talk about? Or maybe what the principles of antibiotic therapy are?

Lea Serrano

New member
No "gram staining" is just about making bacteria visible and coloured, so that you can see them under the microscope. Gram-positive bacteria like staphylococcus, streptococcus and pneumococcus appear blue, while gram-negative become red (after you add the gram reagents). its the most common way in microbiology to classify bacteria.

The different colours are a result of different cellular walls of the bacteria.

Gram-negative bacteria are special in that they have a second lipid membrane around their wall (saccules) so that some antibiotics have a problem getting inside. That's why many antibiotics only work on gram-positive bacteria.


So I wanted to know the different types of antibiotics and what they each treat?
These are the main classes of antibiotics.
  1. Penicillins such as penicillin and amoxicillin
  2. Cephalosporins such as cephalexin (Keflex)
  3. Macrolides such as erythromycin (E-Mycin), clarithromycin (Biaxin), and azithromycin (Zithromax)
  4. Fluoroquinolones such as ciprofolxacin (Cipro), levofloxacin (Levaquin), and ofloxacin (Floxin)
  5. Sulfonamides such as co-trimoxazole (Bactrim) and trimethoprim (Proloprim)
  6. Tetracyclines such as tetracycline (Sumycin, Panmycin) and doxycycline (Vibramycin)
  7. Aminoglycosides such as gentamicin (Garamycin) and tobramycin (Tobrex)